(a) Definitions. Unless specifically defined below, words or phrases used in this section shall be interpreted so as to give them the meaning they have in common usage and to give this section, as amended from time to time, its most reasonable application.
A Zone means portions of the SFHA in which the principle source of flooding is runoff from rainfall, snowmelt, or a combination of both. In A Zones, floodwaters may move slowly or rapidly, but waves are usually not a significant threat to buildings. These areas are labeled as Zone A, Zone AE, Zones A1-A30, Zone AO, Zone AH, Zone AR and Zone A99 on a FIRM or FHBM. The definitions for these zones are described as follows:
Zone A: Areas subject to inundation by the one-percent annual chance flood event. Because detailed hydraulic analyses have not been performed, no base flood elevation or depths are shown. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply.
Zone AE and A1-A30: Areas subject to inundation by the one-percent annual chance flood event determined by detailed methods. Base flood elevations are shown within these zones. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply. (Note: Zone AE is on new and revised maps in place of Zones A1-A30.)
Zone AO: Areas subject to inundation by one-percent annual chance shallow flooding (usually sheet flow on sloping terrain) where average depths are between one and three feet. Average flood depths derived from detailed hydraulic analyses are shown within this zone. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply.
Zone AH: Areas subject to inundation by one-percent annual chance shallow flooding (usually areas of ponding) where average depths are between one and three feet. Average flood depths derived from detailed hydraulic analyses are shown within this zone. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply.
Zone AR: Areas that result from the decertification of a previously accredited flood protection system that is determined to be in the process of being restored to provide base flood protection. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply.
Zone A99: Areas subject to inundation by the one-percent annual chance flood event, but which will ultimately be protected upon completion of an under-construction federal flood protection system. These are areas of special flood hazard where enough progress has been made on the construction of a protection system, such as dikes, dams, and levees, to consider it complete for insurance rating purposes. Zone A99 may only be used when the flood protection system has reached specified statutory progress toward completion. No base flood elevations or depths are shown. Mandatory flood insurance purchase requirements apply.
Accessory structure (also referred as appurtenant structure) means a structure that is located on the same parcel of property as the principal structure and the use of which is incidental to the use of the principal structure. Accessory structures should constitute a minimal initial investment, may not be used for human habitation, and be designed to have minimal flood damage potential. (Examples of accessory structures are detached garages, carports, storage sheds, pole barns, and hay sheds.)
Addition means any walled and roofed expansion to the perimeter of an existing structure in which the addition is connected by a common load-bearing wall other than a firewall. Any walled and roofed addition, which is connected by a firewall or is separated by independent perimeter load-bearing walls, is new construction.
Appeal means a request for a review of the floodplain administrator's interpretation of any provision of this section or a request for a variance as provided herein.
Area of shallow flooding means a designated AO or AH Zone on the Town's flood insurance rate map (FIRM) with base flood depths from one to three feet where a clearly defined channel does not exist, where the path of flooding is unpredictable and indeterminate, and where velocity flow may be evident. Such flooding is characterized by ponding or sheet flow.
Base flood elevation (BFE) means the elevation of the one percent annual chance flood.
Basement means that portion of a structure having its floor subgrade (below ground level) on all sides.
Building. See structure.
Community means a political entity that has the authority to adopt and enforce floodplain ordinances for the area under its jurisdiction.
Community rating system (CRS) means a program developed by the Federal Insurance Administration to provide incentives for those communities in the regular program that have gone beyond the minimum floodplain management requirements to develop extra measures to provide protection from flooding.
Critical facility means a facility for which even a slight chance of flooding might be too great. Critical facilities include, but are not limited to, schools, nursing homes, hospitals, police, fire, emergency response installations, and installations which produce, use, or store hazardous materials or hazardous waste.
Development means any man-made change to improved or unimproved real estate including, but not limited to:
1. Construction, reconstruction, or placement of a structure or any addition to a structure;
2. Installing a manufactured home on a site, preparing a site for a manufactured home or installing a recreational vehicle on a site for more than one hundred eighty (180) days;
3. Installing utilities, erection of walls and fences, construction of roads, or similar projects;
4. Construction of flood control structures such as levees, dikes, dams, channel improvements, etc.;
5. Mining, dredging, filling, grading, excavation, or drilling operations;
6. Construction and/or reconstruction of bridges or culverts;
7. Storage of materials; or
8. Any other activity that might change the direction, height, or velocity of flood or surface waters.
Development does not include activities such as the maintenance of existing structures and facilities such as painting; reroofing; resurfacing roads; or gardening, plowing, and similar agricultural practices that do not involve filling, grading, excavation, or the construction of permanent structures.
Elevated structure means a nonbasement structure built to have the lowest floor elevated above the ground level by means of fill, solid foundation perimeter walls, filled stem wall foundations (also called chain walls), pilings, or columns including posts and piers.
Elevation certificate is a certified statement that verifies a structure's elevation information.
Emergency program means the first phase under which a community participates in the NFIP. It is intended to provide a first layer amount of insurance at subsidized rates on all insurable structures in that community before the effective date of the initial FIRM.
Encroachment means the advance or infringement of uses, fill, excavation, buildings, permanent structures or development into a floodplain, which may impede or alter the flow capacity of a floodplain.
Existing construction means any structure for which the start of construction commenced before the effective date of the Town's first floodplain management ordinance.
Existing manufactured home park or subdivision means a manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed including, at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads is completed before the effective date of the Town's first floodplain management ordinance.
Expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision means the preparation of additional sites by the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed including the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads.
FEMA means the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
Five-hundred-year flood (500-year flood) means the flood that has a 0.2 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any year.
Flood means a general and temporary condition of partial or complete inundation of normally dry land areas from the overflow, the unusual and rapid accumulation, or the runoff of surface waters from any source.
Flood boundary and floodway map (FBFM) means an official map on which the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) or Federal Insurance Administration (FIA) has delineated the areas of flood hazards and regulatory floodway.
Flood Hazard Boundary Map (FHBM) means an official map of a community issued by FEMA where the boundaries of the areas of special flood hazard have been identified as Zone A.
Flood Insurance Rate Map (FIRM) means an official map of a community on which FEMA has delineated both the areas of special flood hazard and the risk premium zones applicable to the community.
Flood Insurance Study (FIS) is the official hydraulic and hydrologic report provided by FEMA. The report contains flood profiles, as well as the FIRM, FBFM (where applicable), and the water surface elevation of the base flood.
Flood prone area means any land area acknowledged by a community as being susceptible to inundation by water from any source. (See flood.)
Floodplain means the channel proper and the areas adjoining any wetland, lake or watercourse which have been or hereafter may be covered by the regulatory flood. The floodplain includes both the floodway and the fringe districts.
Floodplain administrator or administrator means the person designated by the Town Council to administer and implement the provisions of this section.
Floodplain management means the operation of an overall program of corrective and preventive measures for reducing flood damage and preserving and enhancing, where possible, natural resources in the floodplain, including but not limited to, emergency preparedness plans, flood control works, floodplain management regulations, and open space plans.
Floodplain management regulations means this section and other zoning ordinances, subdivision regulations, building codes, health regulations, special purpose ordinances, and other applications of police power which control development in flood-prone areas. This term describes federal, state, or local regulations in any combination thereof, which provide standards for preventing and reducing flood loss and damage. Floodplain management regulations are also referred to as floodplain regulations, floodplain ordinance, flood damage prevention ordinance, and floodplain management requirements.
Flood Protection Grade (FPG) is the elevation of the regulatory flood plus two (2) feet at any given location in the SFHA. (See also freeboard.)
Floodproofing (dry floodproofing) is a method of protecting a structure that ensures that the structure, together with attendant utilities and sanitary facilities, is watertight to the floodproofed design elevation with walls that are substantially impermeable to the passage of water. All structural components of these walls are capable of resisting hydrostatic and hydrodynamic flood forces including the effects of buoyancy and anticipated debris impact forces.
Floodproofing certificate is a form used to certify compliance for nonresidential structures as an alternative to elevating structures to or above the FPG. This certification must be signed by a registered professional engineer or architect.
Floodway is the channel of a river or stream and those portions of the floodplains adjoining the channel which are reasonably required to efficiently carry and discharge the peak flood flow of the regulatory flood of any river or stream.
Freeboard means a factor of safety, usually expressed in feet above the BFE, which is applied for the purposes of floodplain management. It is used to compensate for the many unknown factors that could contribute to flood heights greater than those calculated for the base flood.
Fringe is those portions of the floodplain lying outside the floodway.
Functionally dependent facility means a facility which cannot be used for its intended purpose unless it is located or carried out in close proximity to water, such as a docking or port facility necessary for the loading and unloading of cargo or passengers, shipbuilding, ship repair, or seafood processing facilities. The term does not include longterm storage, manufacture, sales, or service facilities.
Hardship as related to variances of this section means the exceptional hardship that would result from a failure to grant the requested variance. The Town Council requires that the variance is exceptional, unusual, and peculiar to the property involved. Mere economic or financial hardship alone is not exceptional. Inconvenience, aesthetic considerations, physical handicaps, personal preferences, or the disapproval of one's neighbors likewise cannot, as a rule, qualify as an exceptional hardship. All of these problems can be resolved through other means without granting a variance, even if the alternative is more expensive, or requires the property owner to build elsewhere or put the parcel to a different use than originally intended.
Highest adjacent grade means the highest natural elevation of the ground surface, prior to the start of construction, next to the proposed walls of a structure.
Historic structure means any structure individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places or the Indiana State Register of Historic Sites and Structures.
Increased cost of compliance (ICC) means the cost to repair a substantially damaged structure that exceeds the minimal repair cost and that is required to bring a substantially damaged structure into compliance with the local flood damage prevention ordinance. Acceptable mitigation measures are elevation, relocation, demolition, or any combination thereof. All renewal and new business flood insurance policies with effective dates on or after June 1, 1997, will include ICC coverage.
Letter of map amendment (LOMA) means an amendment to the currently effective FEMA map that establishes that a property is not located in a SFHA. A LOMA is only issued by FEMA.
Letter of map revision (LOMR) means an official revision to the currently effective FEMA map. It is issued by FEMA and changes flood zones, delineations, and elevations.
Letter of map revision based on fill (LOMR-F) means an official revision by letter to an effective NFIP map. A LOMR-F provides FEMA's determination concerning whether a structure or parcel has been elevated on fill above the BFE and excluded from the SFHA.
Lowest adjacent grade means the lowest elevation, after completion of construction, of the ground, sidewalk, patio, deck support, or basement entryway immediately next to the structure.
Lowest floor means the lowest of the following:
1. The top of the lowest level of the structure;
2. The top of the basement floor;
3. The top of the garage floor, if the garage is the lowest level of the structure;
4. The top of the first floor of a structure elevated on pilings or pillars;
5. The top of the floor level of any enclosure, other than a basement, below an elevated structure where the walls of the enclosure provide any resistance to the flow of flood waters unless:
a. The walls are designed to automatically equalize the hydrostatic flood forces on the walls by allowing for the entry and exit of flood waters, by providing a minimum of two (2) openings (in addition to doorways and windows) in a minimum of two exterior walls having a total net area of one square inch for every one square foot of enclosed area subject to flooding. The bottom of all such openings shall be no higher than one foot above the exterior grade or the interior grade immediately beneath each opening, whichever is higher; and
b. Such enclosed space shall be usable solely for the parking of vehicles and building access.
Manufactured home means a structure, transportable in one or more sections, which is built on a permanent chassis and is designed for use with or without a permanent foundation when attached to the required utilities. The term manufactured home does not include a "recreational vehicle."
Manufactured home park or subdivision means a parcel or contiguous parcels of land divided into two (2) or more manufactured home lots for rent or sale.
Map amendment means a change to an effective NFIP map that results in the exclusion from the SFHA of an individual structure or a legally described parcel of land that has been inadvertently included in the SFHA (Example: no alterations of topography have occurred since the date of the first NFIP map that showed the structure or parcel to be within the SFHA.) .
Map panel number is the four-digit number followed by a letter suffix assigned by FEMA on a flood map. The first four digits represent the map panel, and the letter suffix represents the number of times the map panel has been revised. (Note: The letter "A" is not used by FEMA and the letter "B" is the first revision.)
Market value means the building value, excluding the land as agreed to between a willing buyer and seller, as established by what the local real estate market will bear. Market value can be established by independent certified appraisal, replacement cost depreciated by age of building (actual cash value), or adjusted assessed values.
Mitigation means sustained actions taken to reduce or eliminate longterm risk to people and property from hazards and their effects. The purpose of mitigation is to protect people and structures, and to minimize the cost of disaster response and recovery.
National Flood Insurance Program (NFIP) is the federal program that makes flood insurance available to owners of property in participating communities nationwide through the cooperative efforts of the federal government and the private insurance industry.
National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929 as corrected in 1929 is a vertical control used as a reference for establishing varying elevations within the floodplain.
New construction means any structure for which the start of construction commenced after the effective date of the Town's first floodplain management ordinance.
New manufactured home park or subdivision means a manufactured home park or subdivision for which the construction of facilities for servicing the lots on which the manufactured homes are to be affixed including at a minimum, the installation of utilities, the construction of streets, and either final site grading or the pouring of concrete pads, is completed on or after the effective date of the Town's first floodplain management ordinance.
North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) as adopted in 1993 is a vertical control datum used as a reference for establishing varying elevations within the floodplain.
Obstruction includes, but is not limited to, any dam, wall, wharf, embankment, levee, dike, pile, abutment, protection, excavation, canalization, bridge, conduit, culvert, building, wire, fence, rock, gravel, refuse, fill, structure, vegetation, or other material in, along, across or projecting into any watercourse which may alter, impede, retard or change the direction and/or velocity of the flow of water; or due to its location, its propensity to snare or collect debris carried by the flow of water, or its likelihood of being carried downstream.
One-hundred-year flood (100-year flood) is the flood that has a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. Any flood zone that begins with the letter A is subject to the one percent annual chance flood. (See also regulatory flood.)
One percent annual chance flood is the flood that has a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year. Any flood zone that begins with the letter A is subject to the one percent annual chance flood. (See also regulatory flood.)
Participating community means any community that voluntarily elects to participate in the NFIP by adopting and enforcing floodplain management regulations that are consistent with the standards of the NFIP.
Physical map revision (PMR) is an official republication of a community's FEMA map to effect changes to base (one percent annual chance) flood elevations, floodplain boundary delineations, regulatory floodways, and planimetric features. These changes typically occur as a result of structural works or improvements, annexations resulting in additional flood hazard areas, or corrections to base flood elevations or SFHAs.
Post-FIRM construction means construction or substantial improvement that started on or after the effective date of the initial FIRM of the Town or after December 31, 1974, whichever is later.
Pre-FIRM construction means construction or substantial improvement, which started on or before December 31, 1974, or before the effective date of the initial FIRM of the Town, whichever is later.
Probation means formally notifying participating communities of violations and deficiencies in the administration and enforcement of the local floodplain management regulations.
Public safety and nuisance means anything which is injurious to the safety or health of an entire community, neighborhood or any considerable number of persons, or unlawfully obstructs the free passage or use, in the customary manner, of any navigable lake, or river, bay, stream, canal, or basin.
Recreational vehicle means a vehicle which is (1) built on a single chassis; (2) 400 square feet or less when measured at the largest horizontal projections; (3) designed to be self-propelled or permanently towable by a light duty truck; and (4) designed primarily not for use as a permanent dwelling, but as quarters for recreational camping, travel, or seasonal use.
Regular program means the phase of the Town's participation in the NFIP where more comprehensive floodplain management requirements are imposed and higher amounts of insurance are available based upon risk zones and elevations determined in a FIS.
Regulatory flood means the flood having a one percent chance of being equaled or exceeded in any given year, as calculated by a method and procedure that is acceptable to and approved by the Indiana Department of Natural Resources and the Federal Emergency Management Agency. The regulatory flood elevation at any location is as defined in subsection (2) of this section. Regulatory flood is also known as "base flood", "one percent annual chance flood", and "100-year flood".
Repetitive loss means flood related damages sustained by a structure on two (2) separate occasions during a ten-year period ending on the date of the event for which the second claim is made, in which the cost of repairing the flood damage, on the average, equaled or exceeded twenty-five (25) percent of the market value of the structure at the time of each such flood event.
Section 1316 is that section of the National Flood Insurance Act of 1968, as amended, which states that no new flood insurance coverage shall be provided for any property that the floodplain administrator finds has been declared by a duly constituted state or local zoning authority or other authorized public body to be in violation of state or local laws, regulations, or ordinances that intended to discourage or otherwise restrict land development or occupancy in flood-prone areas.
Special Flood Hazard Area (SFHA) means those lands within the jurisdictions of the Town subject to inundation by the regulatory flood. The SFHAs of the Town are generally identified as such on the Lake County and incorporated areas flood insurance rate map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, dated January 18, 2012, prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency with the most recent date. The SFHAs of those parts of unincorporated Lake County that are within the extraterritorial jurisdiction of the Town or that may be annexed into the Town are generally identified as such on the Lake County and incorporated areas flood insurance rate map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency, dated January 18, 2012. (These areas are shown on a FHBM or FIRM as Zone A, AE, A1-A30, AH, AR, A99, or AO).
Start of construction includes substantial improvement, and means the date the building permit was issued, provided the actual start of construction, repair, reconstruction, or improvement was within one hundred eighty (180) days of the permit date. The actual start means the first placement or permanent construction of a structure including a manufactured home on a site, such as the pouring of slabs or footing, installation of piles, construction of columns, or any work beyond the stage of excavation for placement of a manufactured home on a foundation. Permanent construction does not include land preparation, such as clearing, grading and filling; nor does it include the installation of streets and/or walkways; nor does it include excavation for a basement, footings, piers, foundations, or the erection of temporary forms; nor does it include the installation on the property of accessory buildings, such as garages or sheds not occupied as dwelling units or not part of the main structure. For substantial improvement, the actual start of construction means the first alteration of any wall, ceiling, floor, or other structural part of a building, whether or not that alteration affects the external dimensions of the building.
Structure means a structure that is principally above ground and is enclosed by walls and a roof. The term includes a gas or liquid storage tank, a manufactured home, or a prefabricated building. The term also includes recreational vehicles to be installed on a site for more than one hundred eighty (180) days.
Substantial damage means damage of any origin sustained by a structure whereby the cost of restoring the structure to before its damaged condition would equal or exceed fifty (50) percent of the market value of the structure before the damage occurred.
Substantial improvement means any reconstruction, rehabilitation, addition, or other improvement of a structure, the cost of which equals or exceeds fifty (50) percent of the market value of the structure before the start of construction of the improvement. This term includes structures that have incurred "repetitive loss" or "substantial damage" regardless of the actual repair work performed. The term does not include improvements of structures to correct existing violations of state or local health, sanitary, or safety code requirements or any alteration of a historic structure, provided that the alteration will not preclude the structures continued designation as a historic structure.
Suspension means the removal of a participating community from the NFIP because the community has not enacted and/or enforced the proper floodplain management regulations required for participation in the NFIP.
Town means the Town of St. John, Lake County, Indiana.
Variance is a grant of relief from the requirements of this section, which permits construction in a manner otherwise prohibited by this section where specific enforcement would result in unnecessary hardship.
Violation means the failure of a structure or other development to be fully compliant with this section. A structure or other development without the elevation, other certification, or other evidence of compliance required in this section is presumed to be in violation until such time as that documentation is provided.
Watercourse means a lake, river, creek, stream, wash, channel or other topographic feature on or over which waters flow at least periodically. Watercourse includes specifically designated areas in which substantial flood damage may occur.
Water surface elevation means the height, in relation to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88) or National Geodetic Vertical Datum (NGVD) of 1929, (or other datum where specified) of floods of various magnitudes and frequencies in the floodplains of riverine areas.
X zone means the area where the flood hazard is less than that in the SFHA. Shaded X zones shown on recent FIRMs (B zones on older FIRMs) designate areas subject to inundation by the flood with a 0.2 percent chance of being equaled or exceeded (the 500-year flood). Unshaded X zones (C zones on older FIRMs) designate areas where the annual exceedance probability of flooding is less than 0.2 percent.
Zone means a geographical area shown on a FHBM or FIRM that reflects the severity or type of flooding in the area.
Zone A. See definition of A Zone.
Zone B, C, and X means areas identified in the community as areas of moderate or minimal hazard from the principal source of flood in the area. However, buildings in these zones could be flooded by severe, concentrated rainfall coupled with inadequate local drainage systems. Flood insurance is available in participating communities but is not required by regulation in these zones. (Note: Zone X is used on new and revised maps in place of Zones B and C.)
(b) General provisions.
(1) Lands to which this section applies. This section shall apply to all SFHAs within the jurisdiction of the Town.
(2) Basis for establishing regulatory flood data. This section's protection standard is the regulatory flood. The best available regulatory flood data is listed below. Whenever a party disagrees with the best available data, the party submitting the detailed engineering study needs to replace existing data with better data and submit it to the Indiana department of natural resources for review and approval.
a. The regulatory flood elevation, floodway, and fringe limits for the studied SFHAs within the jurisdiction of the Town shall be as delineated on the one percent annual chance flood profiles in the Flood Insurance Study of Lake County and Incorporated Areas dated January 18, 2012, and the corresponding flood insurance rate map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and dated January 18, 2012.
b. The regulatory flood elevation, floodway, and fringe limits for each of the SFHAs within the jurisdiction of the Town, delineated as an "A Zone" on the Lake County and incorporated areas flood insurance rate map prepared by the Federal Emergency Management Agency and dated January 18, 2012, shall be according to the best data available as provided by the Indiana department of natural resources; provided the upstream drainage area from the subject site is greater than one square mile.
c. In the absence of a published FEMA map, or absence or identification on a FEMA map, the regulatory flood elevation, floodway, and fringe limits of any watercourse in the Town's known flood prone areas shall be according to the best data available as provided by the Indiana department of natural resources; provided the upstream drainage area from the subject site is greater than one square mile.
3. Establishment of floodplain development permit. A floodplain development permit shall be required in conformance with the provisions of this section prior to the commencement of any development activities in areas of special flood hazard.
(4) Compliance. No structure shall hereafter be located, extended, converted or structurally altered within the SFHA without full compliance with the terms of this section and other applicable regulations. No land or stream within the SFHA shall hereafter be altered without full compliance with the terms of this section and other applicable regulations.
(5) Abrogation and greater restrictions. This section is not intended to repeal, abrogate, or impair any existing easements, covenants, or deed restrictions. However, where this section and another conflict or overlap, whichever imposes the more stringent restrictions shall prevail.
(6) Discrepancy between mapped floodplain and actual ground elevations.
a. In cases where there is a discrepancy between the mapped floodplain area (SFHA) on the FIRM and the actual ground elevations, the elevation provided on the profile sheets located in the FIS shall govern to define the SFHA boundary.
b. If the elevation of the site in question is below the base flood elevation, that site shall be included in the SFHA and regulated accordingly.
c. If the elevation on the natural grade of the site in question is above the base flood elevation, that site shall be considered outside the SFHA and the floodplain regulations will not be applied. The property owner should be advised to apply for a LOMA.
(7) Interpretation. In the interpretation and application of this section, all provisions shall be:
a. Considered as minimum requirements;
b. Liberally construed in favor of the Town and its Town Council; and
c. Deemed neither to limit nor repeal any other powers granted under state and federal statutes.
(8) Warning and disclaimer of liability. The degree of flood protection required by this section is considered reasonable for regulatory purposes and is based on available information derived from engineering and scientific methods of study. Larger floods can and will occur on rare occasions. Therefore, this section does not create any liability on the part of the Town; the Indiana department of natural resources; or the State of Indiana, for any flood damage that results from reliance on this section or any administrative decision made lawfully thereunder.
(9) Penalties for violation. Failure to obtain a floodplain development permit in the SFHA or failure to comply with the requirements of a permit or conditions of a variance shall be deemed to be a violation of this section. All violations shall be considered a common nuisance and be treated as such in accordance with the provisions of the Town zoning ordinance. All violations shall be punishable by a fine of not less than two hundred dollars ($200.00) and not more than two thousand five hundred dollars ($2,500.00) for each day the violation exists.
a. A separate offense shall be deemed to occur for each day the violation continues to exist.
b. The Town shall inform the owner that any such violation is considered a willful act to increase flood damages and therefore may cause coverage by a standard flood insurance policy to be suspended.
c. Nothing herein shall prevent the Town from taking such other lawful action to prevent or remedy any violations. All costs, including attorney's fees, connected therewith shall accrue to the person or persons responsible.
(10) Increased cost of compliance (ICC). In order for buildings to qualify for a claim payment under ICC coverage as a "repetitive loss structure," the National Reform Act of 1994 requires that the building be covered by a contract for flood insurance and incur flood-related damages on two occasions during a ten-year period ending on the date of the event for which the second claim is made, in which the cost of repairing the flood damage, on the average, equaled or exceeded twenty-five (25) percent of the market value of the building at the time of each such flood event.
(1) Designation of floodplain administrator. The Town Council hereby appoints the Town Manager as the floodplain administrator, who is responsible for administering and implementing the provisions of this section.
(2) Permit procedures. Application for a floodplain development permit shall be made to the floodplain administrator on forms established for such purpose prior to any development activities, and may include, but is not limited to, the following: plans in duplicate drawn to scale showing the nature, location, dimensions, and elevations of the area in question; existing or proposed structures; earthen fill; storage of materials or equipment; drainage facilities; and the locations of the foregoing items. Specifically, the following information is required:
a. Application stage.
1. A description of the proposed development;
2. Location of the proposed development sufficient to accurately locate property and structure in relation to existing roads and streams;
3. A legal description of the property site;
4. A site development plan showing existing and proposed development locations and existing and proposed land grades;
5. Elevation of the top of the lowest floor including basement of all proposed buildings. Elevations should be in NAVD 88 or NGVD;
6. Elevation in NAVD 88 or NGVD to which any nonresidential structure will be floodproofed; and
7. Description of the extent to which any watercourse will be altered or relocated as a result of proposed development, and
b. Construction stage. Upon placement of the lowest floor or floodproofing, it shall be the duty of the permit holder to submit to the floodplain administrator a certification of the NAVD 88 or NGVD elevation of the lowest floor or floodproofed elevation, as built. Said certification shall be prepared by or under the direct supervision of a registered land surveyor or professional engineer and certified by the same. When floodproofing is utilized for a particular structure, said certification shall be prepared by or under the direct supervision of a professional engineer or architect and certified by same. Any work undertaken prior to submission of the certification shall be at the permit holders' risk. The floodplain administrator shall review the lowest floor and floodproofing elevation survey data submitted. The permit holder shall correct deficiencies detected by such review before any further work is allowed to proceed. Failure to submit the survey or failure to make said corrections required hereby, shall be cause for the floodplain administrator to issue a stop work order for the project.
(3) Duties and responsibilities of the floodplain administrator. The floodplain administrator and/or designated staff is hereby authorized and directed to enforce the provisions of this section. The floodplain administrator is further authorized to render interpretations of this section, which are consistent with its purpose and objectives as provided in the recitals hereinabove. Further, the duties and responsibilities of the floodplain administrator shall include, but not be limited to, the following:
a. Review all floodplain development permits to assure that the permit requirements of this section have been satisfied;
b. Inspect and inventory damaged structures in SFHA and complete substantial damage determinations;
c. Ensure that construction authorization has been granted by the Indiana department of natural resources for all development projects subject to subsections (d)(4) and (5), and maintain a record of such authorization (either copy of actual permit or floodplain analysis/regulatory assessment);
d. Ensure that all necessary federal or state permits have been received prior to issuance of the local floodplain development permit. Copies of such permits are to be maintained on file with the floodplain development permit;
e. Notify adjacent communities and the State Floodplain Coordinator prior to any alteration or relocation of a watercourse, and submit copies of such notifications to FEMA;
f. Maintain for public inspection and furnish upon request local permit documents, damaged structure inventories, substantial damage determinations, regulatory flood data, SFHA maps, letters of map amendment (LOMA), letters of map revision (LOMR), copies of DNR permits and floodplain analysis and regulatory assessments (letters of recommendation), federal permit documents, and "as-built" elevation and floodproofing data for all buildings constructed subject to this section;
g. Utilize and enforce all letters of map revision (LOMR) or physical map revisions (PMR) issued by FEMA for the currently effective SFHA maps of the Town;
h. Assure that maintenance is provided within the altered or relocated portion of said watercourse so that the flood-carrying capacity is not diminished;
i. Verify and record the actual elevation of the lowest floor (including basement) of all new or substantially improved structures, in accordance with subection (d)(2);
j. Verify and record the actual elevation to which any new or substantially improved structures have been floodproofed, in accordance with subsection (d)(2);
k. Review certified plans and specifications for compliance;
l. Issue stop work orders, subject to the following:
1. Upon notice from the floodplain administrator, work on any building, structure or premises that is being done contrary to the provisions of this section shall immediately cease; and
2. Such notice shall be in writing and shall be given to the owner, or agent, of the property or to the person doing the work, and shall state the conditions under which work may be resumed.
m. Revoke permits or approvals as follows:
1. The floodplain administrator may revoke a permit or approval, issued under the provisions of the section, in cases where there has been any false statement or misrepresentation as to the material fact in the application or plans on which the permit or approval was based; and
2. The floodplain administrator may revoke a permit upon determination by the floodplain administrator that the construction, erection, alteration, repair, moving, demolition, installation, or replacement of the structure for which the permit was issued is in violation of, or not in conformity with, the provisions of this section.
n. Inspect sites for compliance. For all new and/or substantially improved buildings constructed in the SFHA, inspect before, during and after construction. Authorized town officials shall have the right to enter and inspect properties located in the SFHA.
(d) Provisions for flood hazard reduction.
(1) General standards. In all SFHAs, the following provisions are required:
a. New construction and substantial improvements shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement of the structure;
b. Manufactured homes shall be anchored to prevent flotation, collapse, or lateral movement. Methods of anchoring may include, but are not limited to, use of over-the-top or frame ties to ground anchors. This standard shall be in addition to and consistent with applicable state requirements for resisting wind forces;
c. New construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed with materials and utility equipment resistant to flood damage below the FPG;
d. New construction and substantial improvements shall be constructed by methods and practices that minimize flood damage;
e. Electrical, heating, ventilation, plumbing, air conditioning equipment, utility meters, and other service facilities shall be located at/above the FPG or designed so as to prevent water from entering or accumulating within the components below the FPG. Water and sewer pipes, electrical and telephone lines, submersible pumps, and other waterproofed service facilities may be located below the FPG;
f. New and replacement water supply systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the system;
g. New and replacement sanitary sewage systems shall be designed to minimize or eliminate infiltration of flood waters into the system;
h. Onsite waste disposal systems shall be located and constructed to avoid impairment to them or contamination from them during flooding;
i. Any alteration, repair, reconstruction or improvements to a structure that is in compliance with the provisions of this section shall meet the requirements of "new construction" as contained in this section;
j. Any alteration, repair, reconstruction or improvement to a structure that is not in compliance with the provisions of this section, shall be undertaken only if said nonconformity is not further, extended, or replaced; and
k. Whenever any portion of the SFHA is authorized for use, the volume of space which will be occupied by the authorized fill or structure below the BFE shall be compensated for and balanced by an equivalent volume of excavation taken below the BFE. The excavation volume shall be at least equal to the volume of storage lost (replacement ratio of one to one due to the fill or structure, subject to the following:
1. The excavation shall take place in the floodplain and in the same property in which the authorized fill or structure is located;
2. Under certain circumstances, the excavation may be allowed to take place outside of, but adjacent to, the floodplain provided that the excavated volume will be below the regulatory flood elevation, will be in the same property in which the authorized fill or structure is located, will be accessible to the regulatory flood water, will not be subject to ponding when not inundated by flood water, and that it shall not be refilled;
3. The excavation shall provide for true storage of floodwater but shall not be subject to ponding when not inundated by flood water;
4. The fill or structure shall not obstruct a drainage way leading to the floodplain;
5. The grading around the excavation shall be such that the excavated area is accessible to the regulatory flood water.
6. The fill or structure shall be of a material deemed stable enough to remain firm and in place during periods of flooding and shall include provisions to protect adjacent property owners against any increased runoff or drainage resulting from its placement; and
7. Plans depicting the areas to be excavated and filled shall be submitted prior to the actual start of construction or any site work; once site work is complete, but before the actual start of construction, the applicant shall provide to the Floodplain Administrator a certified survey of the excavation and fill sites demonstrating the fill and excavation comply with this section.
(2) Specific standards. In all SFHAs, the following provisions are required:
a. Building protection requirement. In addition to the requirements of subsection (d)(1), all structures to be located in the SFHA shall be protected from flood damage below the FPG. This building protection requirement applies to the following situations:
1. Construction or placement of any new structure having a floor area greater than four hundred (400) square feet;
2. Addition or improvement made to any existing structure:
i. Where the cost of the addition or improvement equals or exceeds fifty (50) percent of the value of the existing structure (excluding the value of the land); and
ii. With a previous addition or improvement constructed since the community's first floodplain ordinance.
3. Reconstruction or repairs made to a damaged structure where the costs of restoring the structure to its before damaged condition equals or exceeds fifty (50) percent of the market value of the structure (excluding the value of the land) before damage occurred;
4. Installing a travel trailer or recreational vehicle on a site for more than one hundred eighty (180) days;
5. Installing a manufactured home on a new site or a new manufactured home on an existing site. This ordinance does not apply to returning the existing manufactured home to the same site it lawfully occupied before it was removed to avoid flood damage; and
6. Reconstruction or repairs made to a repetitive loss structure.
b. Residential construction. New construction or substantial improvement of any residential structure or manufactured home shall have the lowest floor, including the basement, at or above the FPG (two feet above the base flood elevation). Should solid foundation perimeter walls be used to elevate a structure, openings sufficient to facilitate the unimpeded movements of floodwaters shall be provided in accordance with the standards of subsection (d)(2)(d) below.
c. Nonresidential construction. New construction or substantial improvement of any commercial, industrial, or nonresidential structure (or manufactured home) shall have the lowest floor, including basement, elevated to or above the FPG (two feet above the base flood elevation). Should solid foundation perimeter walls be used to elevate a structure, openings sufficient to facilitate the unimpeded movements of floodwaters shall be provided in accordance with the standards of subsection (d)(2)(d) below. Structures located in all "A Zones" may be floodproofed in lieu of being elevated if done in accordance with the following:
1. A registered professional engineer or architect shall certify that the structure has been designed so that below the FPG, the structure and attendant utility facilities are watertight and capable of resisting the effects of the regulatory flood. The structure design shall take into account flood velocities, duration, rate of rise, hydrostatic pressures, and impacts from debris or ice. Such certification shall be provided to the floodplain administrator; and
2. Floodproofing measures shall be operable without human intervention and without an outside source of electricity.
d. Elevated structures. New construction or substantial improvements of elevated structures shall have the lowest floor at or above the FPG.
Elevated structures with fully enclosed areas formed by foundation and other exterior walls below the base flood elevations, shall be designed to preclude finished living space and designed to allow for the entry and exit of floodwaters to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls. Designs for complying with this requirement must meet the following minimum criteria:
1. Provide a minimum of two (2) openings located in a minimum of two (2) exterior walls having a total net area of not less than one square inch for every one square foot of enclosed area;
2. The bottom of all openings shall be no more than one foot above the exterior grade or the interior grade immediately beneath each opening, whichever is higher;
3. Openings may be equipped with screens, louvers, valves or other coverings or devices provided they permit the automatic flow of floodwaters in both directions;
4. Openings are to be not less than three (3) inches in any direction in the plane of the wall. This requirement applies to the hole in the wall, excluding any device that may be inserted such as typical foundation air vent device;
5. Access to the enclosed area shall be the minimum necessary to allow for parking for vehicles (garage door) or limited storage of maintenance equipment used in connection with the premises (standard exterior door) or entry to the living area (stairway or elevator);
6. The interior portion of such enclosed area shall not be partitioned or finished into separate rooms;
7. The interior grade of such enclosed area shall be at an elevation at or higher than the exterior grade; and
8. Where elevation requirements exceed six (6) feet above the highest adjacent grade, a copy of the legally recorded deed restriction prohibiting the conversion of the area below the lowest floor to a use or dimension contrary to the structure's originally approved design, shall be presented as a condition of issuance of the final certificate of occupancy.
e. Structures constructed on fill. A residential or nonresidential structure may be constructed on a permanent land fill in accordance with the following:
1. The fill shall be placed in layers no greater than one foot deep before compacting to ninety-five (95) percent of the maximum density obtainable with either the standard or modified proctor test method;
2. The fill should extend at least ten (10) feet beyond the foundation of the structure before sloping below the FPG;
3. The fill shall be protected against erosion and scour during flooding by vegetative cover, riprap, or bulkheading. If vegetative cover is used, the slopes shall be no steeper than three (3) horizontal to one vertical;
4. The fill shall not adversely affect the flow of surface drainage from or onto neighboring properties; and
5. The top of the lowest floor including basements shall be at or above the FPG.
f. Standards for manufactured homes and recreational vehicles. Manufactured homes and recreational vehicles to be installed or substantially improved on a site and to remain on said site for more than one hundred eighty (180) days must meet one of the following requirements:
1. The manufactured home shall be elevated on a permanent foundation such that the lowest floor shall be at or above the FPG and securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement. This requirement applies to all manufactured homes to be placed on a site;
i. Outside a manufactured home park or subdivision;
ii. In a new manufactured home park or subdivision;
iii. In an expansion to an existing manufactured home park or subdivision;
iv. Or in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision on which a manufactured home has incurred "substantial damage" as a result of a flood.
2. The manufactured home shall be elevated so that the lowest floor of the manufactured home chassis is supported by reinforced piers or other foundation elevations that are no less than thirty-six (36) inches in height above grade and shall be securely anchored to an adequately anchored foundation system to resist flotation, collapse, and lateral movement. This requirement applies to all manufactured homes to be placed on a site in an existing manufactured home park or subdivision that has not been substantially damaged by a flood.
3. Manufactured homes with fully enclosed areas formed by foundation and other exterior walls below the flood protection grade shall be designed to preclude finished living space and designed to allow for the entry and exit of floodwaters to automatically equalize hydrostatic flood forces on exterior walls as required for elevated structures in subsection (d)(2)(d).
4. Flexible skirting and rigid skirting not attached to the frame or foundation of a manufactured home are not required to have openings.
5. Recreational vehicles placed on a site shall either:
i. Be on site for less than one hundred eighty (180) days and be fully licensed and ready for highway use (defined as being on its wheels or jacking system, is attached to the site only by quick disconnect type utilities and security devices, and has no permanently attached additions); or
ii. Meet the requirements for "manufactured homes" as provided hereinabove.
(3) Standards for subdivision proposals.
a. All subdivision proposals shall be consistent with the need to minimize flood damage;
b. All subdivision proposals shall have public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems located and constructed to minimize flood damage;
c. All subdivision proposals shall have adequate drainage provided to reduce exposure to flood hazards;
d. Base flood elevation data shall be provided for subdivision proposals and other proposed development (including manufactured home parks and subdivisions), which is greater than the lesser of fifty (50) lots or five (5) acres;
e. All subdivision proposals shall minimize development in the SFHA and/or limit density of development permitted in the SFHA; and
f. All subdivision proposals shall ensure safe access into/out of SFHA for pedestrians and vehicles (especially emergency responders).
(4) Critical facility. Construction of new critical facilities shall be, to the extent possible, located outside the limits of the SFHA. Construction of new critical facilities shall be permissible within the SFHA if no feasible alternative site is available. Critical facilities constructed within the SFHA shall have the lowest floor elevated to or above the FPG at the site. Floodproofing and sealing measures must be taken to ensure that toxic substances will not be displaced by or released into floodwaters. Access routes elevated to or above the FPG shall be provided to all critical facilities to the extent possible.
(5) Standards for identified floodways.
a. Located within SFHAs, established in subsection (b)(2), are areas designated as floodways. The floodway is an extremely hazardous area due to the velocity of floodwaters, which carry debris and potential projectiles, and has erosion potential. If the site is in an identified floodway, the floodplain administrator shall require the applicant to forward the application, along with all pertinent plans and specifications, to the Indiana department of natural resources and apply for a permit for construction in a floodway. Under the provisions of IC 14-28-1 et seq., a permit for construction in a floodway from the Indiana department of natural resources is required prior to the issuance of a local building permit for any excavation, deposit, construction, or obstruction activity located in the floodway. This includes land preparation activities such as filling, grading, clearing and paving undertaken before the actual start of construction of a structure on the site. However, it does exclude non-substantial additions and/or improvements to existing and legal residences in a non-boundary river floodway. IC 14-28-1-26 allows construction of nonsubstantial additions and/or improvements to residences in a nonboundary river floodway without obtaining a permit for construction in a floodway from the Indiana department of natural resources. Please note that if fill is needed to elevate an addition above the existing grade, prior approval (construction in a floodway permit) for the fill is required from the Indiana department of natural resources.
b. No action shall be taken by the floodplain administrator until a permit (when applicable) has been issued by the Indiana department of natural resources granting approval for construction in the floodway. Once a permit for construction in a floodway has been issued by the Indiana department of natural resources, the floodplain administrator may issue the local floodplain development permit, provided the provisions contained in subsection (d) of this section have been met. The floodplain development permit cannot be less restrictive than the permit for construction in a floodway issued by the Indiana department of natural resources. However, a community's more restrictive regulations (if any) shall take precedence.
c. No development shall be allowed which acting alone or in combination with existing or future development, will increase the regulatory flood more than 0.14 of one foot; and
d. For all projects involving channel modifications or fill (including levees), the Town shall submit the data and request that the Federal Emergency Management Agency revise the regulatory flood data.
(6) Standards for identified fringe. If the site is located in an identified fringe, then the floodplain administrator may issue the local floodplain development permit provided the provisions contained in subsection (d) of this section have been met. The key provision is that the top of the lowest floor of any new or substantially improved structure shall be at or above the FPG.
(7) Standards for SFHAs without established base flood elevation and/or floodways/fringes.
a. Drainage area upstream of the site is greater than one square mile.
1. If the site is in an identified floodplain where the limits of the floodway and fringe have not yet been determined, and the drainage area upstream of the site is greater than one square mile, the floodplain administrator shall require the applicant to forward the application, along with all pertinent plans and specifications, to the Indiana department of natural resources for review and comment;
2. No action shall be taken by the floodplain administrator until either a permit for construction in the floodway or a floodplain analysis/regulatory assessment citing the one percent annual chance flood elevation and the recommended flood protection grade has been received from the Indiana department of natural resources; and
3. Once the floodplain administrator has received the proper permit for construction in a floodway or floodplain analysis/regulatory assessment approving the proposed development, a floodplain development permit may be issued provided the conditions of the floodplain development permit are not less restrictive than the conditions received from the Indiana department of natural resources and the provisions contained in subsection (d) of this section have been met.
b. Drainage area upstream of the site is less than one square mile.
1. If the site is in an identified floodplain where the limits of the floodway and fringe have not yet been determined and the drainage area upstream of the site is less than one square mile, the Floodplain Administrator shall require the applicant to provide an engineering analysis showing the limits of the floodplain and one-percent annual chance flood elevation for the site; and
2. Upon receipt, the Floodplain Administrator may issue the local Floodplain Development Permit, provided the provisions contained in Section 4 of this Ordinance have been met.
c. The total cumulative effect of the proposed development in either a. or b. above, when combined with all other existing and anticipated development, will not increase the regulatory flood more than 0.14 of one foot and will not increase flood damages or potential flood damages.
(8) Standards for flood prone areas. All development in known flood prone areas not identified on FEMA maps, or where no FEMA published map is available, shall meet applicable standards as required per subsection (d).
(e) Variance procedures.
(1) Designation of variance and appeals board. The Town Board of Zoning Appeals (hereinafter "BZA") as established by the Town Council shall hear and decide appeals and requests for variances from the requirements of this section.
(2) Duties of the BZA. The BZA shall hear and decide appeals when it is alleged an error in any requirement, decision, or determination is made by the floodplain administrator in the enforcement or administration of this section. Any person aggrieved by the decision of the BZA may appeal such decision as provided in IC 36-7-4-1600 et seq.
(3) Variance review factors. In reviewing variance or appeal applications, the BZA shall consider all technical evaluations, all relevant factors, all standards specified in other subsections of this section, and:
a. The danger of life and property due to flooding or erosion damage;
b. The susceptibility of the proposed facility and its contents to flood damage and the effect of such damage on the individual owner;
c. The importance of the services provided by the proposed facility to the community;
d. The necessity to the facility of a waterfront location, where applicable;
e. The availability of alternative locations for the proposed use which are not subject to flooding or erosion damage;
f. The compatibility of the proposed use with existing and anticipated development;
g. The relationship of the proposed use to the comprehensive plan and floodplain management program for that area;
h. The safety of access to the property in times of flood for ordinary and emergency vehicles;
i. The expected height, velocity, duration, rate of rise, and sediment of transport of the floodwaters at the site; and
j. The costs of providing governmental services during and after flood conditions, including maintenance and repair of public utilities and facilities such as sewer, gas, electrical, and water systems, and streets and bridges.
(4) Conditions for variance.
a. Variances shall only be issued when there is:
1. A showing of good and sufficient cause;
2. A determination in writing that failure to grant the variance would result in exceptional hardship; and
3. A determination that the granting of a variance will not result in increased flood heights, additional threats to public safety, extraordinary public expense, create nuisances, cause fraud or victimization of the public, or conflict with existing laws or Ordinances.
d. Variances to the provisions for flood hazard reduction of subsection (d)(2) may be granted only when a new structure is to be located on a lot of one-half acre or less in size, contiguous to and surrounded by lots with existing structures constructed below the flood protection grade.
e. Variances shall only be issued upon a determination that the variance is the minimum necessary, considering the flood hazard, to afford relief.
f. Variance or exception may be granted for the reconstruction or restoration of any structure individually listed on the National Register of Historic Places or the Indiana State Register of Historic Sites and Structures.
g. Any applicant to whom a variance is granted shall be given written notice specifying the difference between the base flood elevation and the elevation to which the lowest floor is to be built and stating that the cost of the flood insurance will be commensurate with the increased risk resulting from the reduced lowest floor elevation.
h. The Floodplain Administrator shall maintain the records of appeal actions and report any variances to the Federal Emergency Management Agency or the Indiana department of natural resources upon request.
(5) Variance notification. Any applicant to whom a variance is granted shall be given written notice over signature of the floodplain administrator that:
a. The issuance of a variance to construct a structure below the base flood elevation will result in increased premium rates for flood insurance up to amounts as high as twenty-five dollars ($25.00) for one hundred dollars ($100.00) of insurance coverage; and
b. Such construction below the base flood level increases risks to life and property. A copy of the notice shall by recorded by the floodplain administrator in the office of the Lake County recorder and shall be recorded in a manner so that it appears in the chain of title of the affected parcel of land.
The floodplain administrator shall maintain a record of all variance actions, including justification for their issuance, and report such variances issued in the Town's biennial report submission to the Federal Emergency Management Agency.
(6) Historic structure. Variances may be approved for the repair or rehabilitation of "historic structures" upon a determination that the proposed repair or rehabilitation will not preclude the structure's continued designation as an "historic structure" and the variance is the minimum to preserve the historic character and design of the structure.
(7) Special conditions. Upon the consideration of the factors listed in subsection (e)(3), and the purposes of this section, the BZA may grant a variance with such conditions as it deems necessary to further the purposes of this section.